The Romantic Age (1798-1837)
By Dinesh Kumar (M.A; B.Ed)
को सुलभ और
सरल बनाना है
मेहनत से नोट
तैयार किये है, हमारे
बरती गयी है फिर भी
है l आपसे
अनुरोध है कि
आप नोट के
पुष्टि कही और
से कर लेंl
The Romantic Age
came in existence after French Revolution (1789). It was an industrial
Revolution. The Romantic Age was a reaction of the Revolution. It was an
artistic, literary and intellectual movement.
What was The French Revolution?
Revolution began on 14 July 1789. On that day
the revolutionaries stormed the fort in an attempt the secure gunpowder and
weapons. It was a battle to achieve equality and remove oppression. It was a
revolt against The Monarchist (राजतन्त्रवादी) dictatorship (तानाशाही) of the Catholic (रोमन) King Louis XVI(16th). America was also involved in it. King Louis
made unfair laws and rules. Under his rule the people were confined
(बंधी हुई) within his perimeters
(परिधि). There was unequal distribution of resources. All the countrymen
were angry with his rules. He had increased the taxes to support America in the
revolution. The result of that bad rules and taxation was that there were many
(मुसीबतें) in the country as- crop failures, oppressive (दमन
(सामंती) system, social, political and economic difficulties. These
difficulties let to the outbreak of the French Revolution.
The Revolution affected
not only France but also England. It had very crucial influence on British
intellectual, political and philosophical life.
The Effect of the Revolution of the British
The writers of the Romantic period were much
affected and inspired by the ideas of the French Revolution. Poets such as
Blake, Wordsworth and Coleridge considered the revolution was fair and necessary
for the establishment of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity (भाई-चारा) that it espoused (समर्थन).
What was the social and economic background of the Romantic Age?
At the end of the 18th century
the country was changing swiftly. There were a lots of development changes.
Machines were taking the place of men. Agriculture, manufacturing, mining and transport
were changing. Steam power had become a practical reality. It radically
improved Britain’s core industries, namely the production of textiles(कपड़ा), metalwork(धातु
कार्य) and other manufactured goods and the mining of coal and other raw
materials. The result was that there was violent conflict(द्वन्द,
employers and worker due to the use of machines. Later on it had taken the form
of the French Revolution.
What was the literary background of the Romantic Age?
The Romantic Age literature is considered as the literature of
Imagination, Emotions, Feelings, Passions, Freedom and Expression. It was much
related to the Nature. It seemed that all the writers and poets were much
shocked with the Revolution and wanted to feel some peace in mind and in
society. The wanted to sooth the mind of affected people. There was unrest and
The German poet Friedrich
Schlegel is given credit for using the term ‘Romantic’ to describe
literature for the first time. According to him- “Literature
depicting emotional matter in an imaginative form.” Is the meaning of the term,
William Long said- “The essence of the romanticism was, it must be remembered,
that literature must reflect all that is spontaneous(सहज) and unaffected in nature and in man
and be free to follow its own fancy in its own way.”
Thus, we can say
that poets such as Wordsworth, Coleridge, Blake and Shelly withdrew themselves
into the inner world and were less concerned with the outer public world. They
move towards nature and its elements. They preferred the beauties of the nature
rather than the ugliness of the industrial world.
Notable points of the Romantic Age-
The Romantic Age had many characteristics, out of them some are
poets believed in individual liberty and sympathized with those who rebelled
poets were much affected with the use of machinery and embraced imagination and
poets preferred personal experiences and emotions often in simple, unadorned(सादा) language rather than the public, formal and
witty works of the previous century.
believed that feelings and emotions could create poetry.
to Romantic poets (Wordsworth)-“Poetry is the spontaneous(सहज) overflow of powerful feelings”.
poets loved the Nature. They thought that nature as transformative (बदल
देने वाला). they were fascinated by the ways of nature and
the human mind mirrored the other’s creative properties.
Romantic poets used lyric as their best to express their feeling,
self-revelation(रहस्योद्घाटन) and the imagination.
Smart Facts about the Romantic Age
of Romanticism is-
to produce his own original work
criticize the past and cults the sensibility.
were self-devoted, they think less about society.
focused on individual liberty
to romantic poets, truest experience was to be found in nature.
focused on the primary importance of the free expression of the feeling of the
Schlegel is credited for using the term ‘Romantic’.
and its Main Poets