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Page No. 2


 

Study of Direct & Indirect Speech In Assertive Sentences
साधारण वाक्यों के अन्तर्गत Direct और Indirect का अध्ययन

Assertive Setences में Direct से Indirect बनाते समय निम्नलिखित नियमो का पालन करना चाहिए l -
1-यदि Direct speech में reprting verb के साथ object भी आया हो तो Indirect बनाते समय reporting verb को निम्न प्रकार बदलते है-

 Direct से  Indirect
 say to को  tell
 says to को  tells
 said to को  told

     For Examples:-
            Direct-  The teacher said to me,"You are a naughty boy."
            Indirect-  The teacher told me that I was a naughty boy."

2-यदि रिपोर्टिंग verb के बाद object न दिया हो तो आने वाले say, says तथा said में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं करते है l
     For Examples:-
            Direct-  The teacher said,"You are a naughty boy."
            Indirect-  The teacher said that you were a naughty boy."
3-Comma तथा Inverted commas को हटा कर that का प्रयोग करते है l
     For Examples:-
            Direct-  The teacher said,"You are a naughty boy."
            Indirect-  The teacher said that you were a naughty boy."
4-Inverted capital Commas के अन्दर प्रथम शब्द के प्रथम अक्षर को small कर देते है, परन्तु Proper Noun तथा I रहने पर उसे capital ही रहने देते है l
     For Examples:-
            Direct-  The teacher said,"You are a naughty boy."
            Indirect-  The teacher said that you were a naughty boy."
5-अगर रिपोर्टिंग भाग direct speech के बीच में या अंत में दिया है तो उसे Indirect बनाते समय पहले लिखते है l
     For Examples:-
            Direct-  "You are a naughty boy",the teacher said.
            Indirect-  The teacher said that you were a naughty boy."
6-यदि Inverted Commas के अन्दर संबोधन के शब्द का प्रयोग किया गया हो तो Indirect बनाते समय उसे अपना object बना लेते है या फिर addressing......as का प्रयोग करे है l
     For Examples:-
            Direct-  The teacher said, "Mohan, you are a naughty boy."
            Indirect-  The teacher told Mohan that he was a naughty boy."

            Direct-  The teacher said, "Children, I love you very much."
            Indirect-  Addressing as children the teacher said that he loved them very much.
7-यदि Direct Speech के रिपोर्टेड part में Sir या Madam शब्द आये हो तो Indirect बनाते समय 'respectfully' reporting verb के पहले या 'with respect' reporting verb के बाद लगाते है l
     For Examples:-
            Direct-  They said to his boss, "Sir, we want to go home."
            Indirect-  They respectfully told his boss taht they wanted to go home.

            Direct-  The children said, "Madam, you are very kind."
            Indirect-  The children told the madam with respect that she was very kind.


8-यदि Direct Speech के रिपोर्टेड part में you see या well शब्द आये हो तो Indirect बनाते समय इन शव्दों को हटा देते है l
     For Examples:-
            Direct-  They said, "Well done Suresh, You have done that."
            Indirect-  They told Suresh taht he had done that.

            Direct-  The children said, "You see Madam, we are very kind."
            Indirect-  The children told madam that they were very kind.
9-यदि Direct Speech के रिपोर्टेड part में thank You, hope, या feel शब्द आये हो तो Indirect बनाते समय thank you को thanked में hope को hoped में तथा feel को felt में बदल देते है l
     For Examples:-
            Direct-  They said, "Thank you Suresh, he have done that."
            Indirect-  They thanked Suresh taht he had done that.

            Direct-  The children said, "We feel we can jump so high."
            Indirect-  The children felt that they could jump so high.

Rules For The Change Of Tenses [ Tense में परिवर्तन सम्बन्धी नियम ]

1-यदि Direct Speech का रिपोर्टिंग Part, Present अथवा Future Tense में हो तो Indirect बनाते समय Reported speech के Tenses में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं करते है l
     For Examples:-
            Direct-  They say, " He have done that."
            Indirect-  They say taht he have done that.

            Direct-  The child says to me, "I can jump so high."
            Indirect-  The child tells me that he can jump so high.
2-यदि Direct Speech का रिपोर्टिंग Part, Past Tense में हो तो Indirect बनाते समय Reported speech के Tenses में निम्नलिखित परिवर्तन करते है l :-
(i)-यदि Direct Speech का रिपोर्टेड Part, Present Indefinite Tense हो तो Indirect बनाते समय इसको Past Indefinite Tense में बदल देते है l-
     For Examples:-
            Direct-  They said, " He goes to school daily."
            Indirect-  They said taht he went to school daily.

            Direct-  The child said to me, "I jump so high."
            Indirect-  The child told me that he jumped so high.
(ii)-यदि Direct Speech का रिपोर्टेड Part, Present Continuous Tense हो तो Indirect बनाते समय इसको Past Continuous Tense में बदल देते है l-
     For Examples:-
            Direct-  They said, " He is going to school."
            Indirect-  They said taht he was going to school.

            Direct-  The child said to me, "I am jumping so high."
            Indirect-  The child told me that he was jumping so high.
(iii)-यदि Direct Speech का रिपोर्टेड Part, Present Perfect Tense हो तो Indirect बनाते समय इसको Past Perfect Tense में बदल देते है l-
     For Examples:-
            Direct-  They said, " He has gone to school."
            Indirect-  They said taht he had gone to school.

            Direct-  The child said to me, "I have jumped so high."
            Indirect-  The child told me that he had jumped so high.




         


 
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